DIFFUSION OF SPORTS FISHING IN ITALY
The sporting fishing in Italy comes practiced chiefly like competitive or recreational activity and not for alimentary necessity. Represent an important activity of the free time which is tied economic, social and environmental connotations. Comes practiced from all the social and diffuse classes equally is among the young people that among the adults and the elderly. The actual data of which been to acquaintance on the aggregative number of sporting fishermen are based on the number of the fishing's licenses issued (around 2.000.000) as concern the fishermen of the inside waters, and the statisticses furnish from the ISTAT (1996) reported to the active fishermen in the seas Italians that practice from a boat (around 1.500.000). From these last, around 30.000 are members of the F.I.P.S.A.S. (Italian Fishing and Diving Federation) and they participate to at least a competition of fishing in the year. More problematic result the estimate of the aggregative number of the fishermen in sea, inclusive of people that practice the activity from earth.
In base to the F.I.P.S.A.S data., the total introit coming from the only sale of the equipments from fishing amounts to around L 700.000.000.000, while there are not currently estimate of her expenditures for the transport and the accommodation.
The social importance of the sporting fishing comes characterized in the drawn benefit from the report with the surrounding environment and in the interest that this activity could arouse for the environmental's problematic.
The principal types of environmental's impact to the exercise of the sporting fishing are tied to the activity of repopulation, to the introduction of exotic kind and to the illegal fishing.
Introduction of exotic species
One of the negative due consequences to the introduction of exotic kind is the possible diffusion of phatogenouses, that, in a new surrounding where very probably are absent specific resistances, they constitute a big danger for the local fauna. Additionally,are different the examples of serious ecologic complications ties to the introduction of exotic kind in surrounding where the absence of kind natural competitors consent a such propagation to alter drastically the equilibriums and the interspecifics reports to the inland of the fish communion of it, threatening the integrity and the survival of the kinds indigenous. A kind that is having an alarming impact in the inside Italian waters, and in peculiar in the basin of the Po river, the fish is the "Siluro" (Silurus [glanis]) whose presence is notably increased beginning from the years '70 when came inserted for the sporting fishing in as aggressive and combative kind. Originating of the Nord-Est Europe, he achieves bulk mottos of 4 meters of length and 300 Kg of weight, he is not absolutely fished for alimentary purposes and thanks to his voracity and aggressiveness is being spread local fish in alarming way to the detriment of the fauna.
The practices of fish repopulation consists in the introduction of fishes to the juvenile or adult stadium for restore the fish populations in surrounding ecologically busted or, more thicker, for increases the activity of sporting fishing. Because of such practice, in Italy have been effect many introductions of no native kind , which has altered the aboriginal distribution of the fish kinds completely native and endemic of the country, determining an extremely confused condition and busted from the point of biologic and systematic sight. When the repopulation comes performed with individuals of a kind already present in the place that is understood repopulate, the more frequent case, the largest impact is of genetic nature and involves an effect of homogenization to the inland of the kind; the genetic difference slowly accumulated among the populations during the time spent from the moment of their separation, thanks to the developmental processes and in response to a definite surrounding, comes dejected in brief time when the populations comes bring again to contact. A way for reduce this risk it is the use of reproducers caughted in the same surrounding that must be repopulated. An other problem tied to this practice is that usually the inserted individuals originate from populations fosters, barren of all those adaptations that characterize the wild populations; that determines a genetic contamination for these last endangering the broadcast of those characters that they had been favorably select. This problem is very more remarkable when the repopulation comes effected with adult examples as comes minus the process of selection during the growth in the wild surrounding. They in the case in which the populations set to contact in succession to the repopulation result very different as from consider articulate kind on the base of morphological characters, but they in reality have maintained a genetic affinity that renders her interfertile, cases of crossbreeding they are audited. This situation is rather frequent in Italy for the trouts. The introduction of fetters of breeding nord-european of Salmo trutta (initially advised articulate kind from the trout macrostigma and marmorata) in the free Italian waters, has caused the rarefaction and in many cases the disappearance of the populations native Salmo (trutta) marmoratus, native in the left part of the basin of the Po river, and the trout Salmo (trutta) macrostigma, originally distributed in all Italy tyrrenic peninsular.
The illegal fishing one verification each time doesn't come
respected the prohibitions in the protected zones, the least measures of the fish
caughtable and the periods of closing to the fish reproduction. These problems,
associate to a very thick insufficient and feckless control, they engage a considerable
weight in the aggregate impact of the sporting fishing on the fish resources and
renders more pressing an effective educational politics on the responsible custom
of the natural resources. A big importance has dressed again from the methods
of fishing and from the used equipments illegally or of which would should regulated
the custom. Many damages comes caused from the use of explosive and it of poisons
is along the coasts that in the inside waters, from the custom of trammels nets
with a superior number to that consented, that beyond to increase further on the
effort of fishing along the coastal band, increase the collisions already existing
among professional fishermen and sporting fishermen.